Sunday, 31 July 2011

Australia's economy in 3 minutes

Found this clip from The Economist talking about the Australia's economy, and its rich source of minerals that benefited its trade. This was especially true with the vast development and the high demand for coal and iron in the Asia region. Watch and enjoy.

                                           Source: The Economist.

Please take note that the latest AiG Performance of Manufacturing Index for July is at 43.4, previously at 52.9. It seems like the manufacturing sector is experiencing a slowdown from the global economy impact.


The Impulsive buyer

Everyone i believe had ever read a book that was bought from the nearest friendly book store. We will always be excited about our new book, eager to find out the content inside. Some will always read the description at the back of the book, while some i call it 'the impulsive buyer'; do not know what they are buying into.

In our financial world, it is also the same scenario. An investor will always be out fishing for investment vehicles and instruments. Informative and intellectual individual will do their own research, while less informative individual will depend on others for expertise. In today's world, there is a third category of people emerging fast into the financial space; 'the impulsive buyer'. Similar with the scenario we quoted earlier, this group of investor do not really know what they are buying in after all.

Everyone will dream of buying their first dream car, the first grand house, having the best wedding, traveling around the world, and of course to build wealth and be rich one day. Of course, it is everyone dream to be rich. There are many ways of making wealth, either you find yourself climbing the corporate world, or setting up a business empire, or the easiest way is to be invested into an instrument that will yield constant profit annually. If you take a look at different methods of building your wealth, there is a similar ingredient or factor that is embedded inside; that is risk.

Let's take a step back to history and revisit the great stock market crash in 1929, the stock market bubble that causes the US stock market crash. It was fueled by a time of peace and prosperity, build on by the growing industries, most of the people has a job. When the credit is available, and market is soaring to new high, everyone realised that stock market is a good place to make their wealth. As credit was available in for the form of margin for investors, people started flocking to the stock exchange to participate in the soaring market. Money was easy to make. It was a time where dream can be realised. The main problem here is that information available about the investment they are making were not comprehensive and available. People do not really gain access to a number of information that are vital to their judgement. Risk component were not explained carefully to this group of 'the impulsive buyer'. The focus on the goal of money making had virtually made the stock exchange a 'casino'. Even casino as we known constitute a very high risk involved.

In the earlier article about bubble, we explained that bubble are created primarily indirectly from human behaviour. The insanity in us drives the market one last time to its peak, and when the momentum fails, the consequences must be endured. Market crashes down, and marks the start of a new trend, which is down. Wealth were lost, dreams were trashed. Everyone faces the same consequences. The group that will take the hardest blow will always be the group with impulse. They bought their stocks without much consideration, without research on the companies they invested in, or understanding the dynamics of how the stock market and the economy function together. The most important factor they disregarded is risk.

Impulse action normally happen without thoughts. Many of the investors today are more intellectual. Information technologies are much better than old times. In addition, there are many more factors that will affect our economy, and of course the stock markets. There are also invention and creation of more sophisticated instrument that not all experts understand them. The only factors that will always remain the same is risk involved and sentiment bias. Impulse buying into something normally start off by not thinking through the whole dynamics and fundamental factors of the investment action. Puring thinking that overall market will grow, and the fact that news and articles that influence the decision of the investor, generally will cost risk to be ignored partially. Why partially? The other part which show the factor was part of the consideration is due to the thinking process of lower risk selective process. However, risk is not totally eliminated if investment process is not think through from a macro to a micro perspective. In today's world, stock markets and other investment from different economies are inter-dependence of each others. With majorities of investors investing in different part of the world, no doubt and event risk at certain part of the world will affect the rest of the other economies.

Just like buying a book, you do not wish to buy a book with when you realised the content is not as exciting and informative as it was, resulting in wastage of money. Many may think they know all this, but past actions and results have shown that risk were not minimised, resulting huge losses. Companies and individuals are alike. If they do not take the correct prudent approach, both fate will be the same. Like a movie i watched and i like the tag line that was mentioned, "If you ask the scientist why, he will say it is unprecedented".


The mystery of Komodo Dragon. (Part 1)

In the 1970s, the oil industrial starts to boom and leads to an average 6-8% high growth of economic of Indonesia per year. Countries in southeast Asia developed their economiess progressively. Stable  economic growth was supported by political stability, internal security control, confidence from foreign and domestic investor.

In the 1980s, Indonesia's government accounted for 70 percent of total revenue were contributed by their oil and gas industries. As a decade passed, the oil price fell. The government faced a decline in their export revenue. This prompt the government to do a series of adjustment to reduce the decline of total revenue.
The series of reform include trade reforms and liberalization of investment to integrate Indonesia into the international financial markets. Stock market exchange reflected their structural problems, which resulted from the government's regulatory framework.

To rectify these problem, the first macro and banking policy was implemented in 1983. The first act was to raise the interest rate, to increase the freedom for banks to support new lending. In 1998, in order to enhance local financial industries and increase the availability of long-term debt, banks were encouraged to drive competition, and promote the local capital market. Although they have make these changes, but serious weakness in the system were not answered.

In 1997, Asian Currency Crisis hit them, causing them to lose 55% of the value against the US dollar. Comparing to other ASEAN currencies, which is within the range of 11-41%. Further impact on their economy was seen with the 20% inflation rate. The crisis slowed down the growth of the local economy that resulted the decrease in export demand, causing numerous industries to shut down. This crisis was triggered by both internal and external factors.

According to IMF calculation on 1998 economic growth in Indonesia would be -5% compare to year 1997 which was +5%. These figure show decline rate rather than growth rate. Government attempts to recover the economy by introducing market operation which was known as "Operation of Sembako" ; which sembako means the basic commodity needs. The situation got worse when speculative distributors store their goods in their warehouse, resulted in the increase in inventory. They then sold it in the open market when the commodity prices goes in their favour. As a result, government requested financial help from IMF. A loan of US$3 million was issued to Indonesia with a total of 55 condition to follow, and they insisted to send their permanent executives in Jakarta. The purpose is to monitor and control the recovery package.

30 years of growth had collapsed in just a few months of time. Whether is it the mishandling of fiscal policies, or capitalism goes unregulated, there are many lesson we can learn from them. The only question now is will this economy emerge again, to compete with the rest of the emerging market? This will be seen soon.


Starting over: Coining a new dollar

Found this article to share with everyone. Is it time to change the dollar and start all over again?



Saturday, 30 July 2011

For entertainment - How much is US debt?

Found a website that illustrated a visualization of US Debt Problem.

US Debt Problem (Visual)

Enjoy Your Weekend


Signing Off.....

Friday, 29 July 2011

Poll: What do you think will happen to our global economy?

Every week, we will try to post a question to get your opinion on some current issues. This week golden question is;

What do you think will happen to our global economy?

Please vote based on the 4 possible opinion. The poll is on the right side of this blog, above the blog archive.

We will welcome other opinions and comments. Your views are valued.




US and Canada GDP were both reported lower than expectation. In the juncture, we are on the tipping point of the recovery, and must be prepare for downfall ahead.

In terms of opportunity out there, safe 'haven' asset will be a temporary solution to preserve wealth now. Remember, market can build wealth, can also destroy wealth overnight. Invest and trade with caution.


For entertainment- Debt Based Economies are Collapsing fast

Are the debt based economies really collapsing fast because of the heavy debt burden? Watch this clip which was posted in YouTube during 2008.

Moral of the story, 'When Capitalism get unregulated, you will see the consequences....'


Business Insider - A fantastic overview of where the economy and the market stands now

I find this article from Business Insider very interesting. It really illustrate all that had happened for the past few weeks and the facts to support it. Read and find out more whether is it doom or bloom.

Below is the link




For entertainment- Hyperinflation

Qn. If you ask a doctor what is hyperinflation, what will be the answer?

Ans: Congrats, you are suffering from food poisoning.


Hyperinflation, a dream or a disaster

Earlier we did post an interesting clip on Germany's 1923 hyperinflation and the effects of it on it's economy during that period. What is hyperinflation then?

Hyperinflation is like inflation, except it is out of control. Remember the joke that we crack on inflation yesterday? We mentioned that inflation is like continuous consumption of food without shitting. Imagine that hyperinflation is 10 times, or even 100 times worst than inflation. Economy that experience hyperinflation will see that their local currency loses their value very rapidly. Hyperinflation is seen as a twentieth-century phenomenon. Germany experienced it during 1923, Hungary experienced after world war 2, and some economies almost faces it.

What is the underlying reasons for hyperinflation? If you google the reasons, you may find that the most creditable answer you may find is due to the over extend of 'supply' of paper money into the economy. By printing and flooding more supply of paper money into the economy is really killing the 'real' value of the currency. This action is done in order to finance the expenditure of some nations. However, by doing that, increase supply of paper money will still need to find a place to land in. Some will invest it overseas in other economies in order to maintain the imbalance occurred due to trade imbalance. Some others will make sure that the extra 'supplies' will in terms 'stimulate' it's own economy.

These action maybe useful to a certain extend, but bear in mind it's like diluting a glass of orange juice. The more water added, the sweetness taste will be lost. Remember, paper money in today's world are regard as fiat money, without gold backing. This maybe a reason to explain the huge drive of gold prices and other commodities like silver to record high. It seem that investors are picking up this point of paper money losing its 'true' value over time of actions. Since that is the case, can we view it as an awareness of a bubble growing to an unstable state, and transferring it to another sector/asset class to fill another new bubble? Remember we mentioned in our articles on bubbles; it's the human action that causes this, and so the insanity must continue in order to satisfy the needs.

Another issue that may cause hyperinflation is also perhaps a small part on the imbalance between the rich, the middle and the poor. Over the years, there were many people that became millionaires, or even billionaires. However, if we take a close look on wages, most of the developed countries wages did not increase in correlation with the increase of asset prices. The number of rich individuals are growing every year. We cannot disregard the fact that the pie is only this small. If everyone is becoming millionaires, or even billionaires, the wages taken by the middle class will not be able to afford for most of the goods and services as inflation kicks in.

No matter how much fiscal policies authorities of the nation does, the issue on hyperinflation is still deem as 'man made' consequences. Think about it, without inflation, asset prices will not increase over time, businesses cannot raise their margin if commodity prices are still low, and people cannot make real wealth fast enough to counter the lost of 'true' value on the paper money over time. Hence, the transition of inflation to hyperinflation is the process that will make wealth super fast, and also the steps to reset the economy back.


Global Deflation

Are the signs from around the world showing that we are facing a global deflation period after a long time of boom?


Thursday, 28 July 2011

Where to find the real Text Book for Economics?

All along in the path of our academic life, we have been reading through our text book, memorising the theories and arguments inside the text book, and hoping to score. When we base the theory on to the real world, some time it just don't work out, or even don't make sense.

History is for us to learn and not for us to commit again, and it also serve as a stepping stone into the real world.

Golden question : Where can i find the best economic text book?

Ans : The real economics text book is all around the world because it is the news that is on going 24/7. The main point of this answer is : Economics is EVERGREEN


Why a downgrade on US credit rating will not be as harsh as it seem?

A downgrade on US credit rating will probability be embedded in our mind now. Most of the people will think that this will eventually lead to a pro long downfall for US economy. Think twice, this may not be 100% true. A downgrade will normally cause the currency of the country to drop against others, but with US dollar as a reserve, this may not be much of the effect. During April when S&P put US credit outlook on negative, there isn't much effect on US dollar; rather risky assets were sold off as reflected by the US indexes, and because of that pushes up the US dollar.

Next, US market is always the most liquid market in the world. We cannot disregard the fact that the world reserve is still the US dollar. The possible outcome will be a quick sell off of risky assets around the globe after the rating agencies downgrade US credit rating. If risk appetite declines and investors fly toward 'safe haven', the dollar will still be the good place to hide from the risk-off trade.

Risk appetite will be the stake in this game. Most people will think that US dollar is no longer safe. Yes, to a certain extend it is showing sign of cracking. However, if we go back to basic, eventually we will realise that it will be useful one day.


For entertainment - Margin Call

Found this interesting trailer...

You may not know what you are selling after all.


For entertainment - Another meaning for inflation?

Qn. What is another way to explain inflation?

Ans: Continuous consumption of food without shitting.


Giant Banks slashing jobs.

Report from Bloomberg illustrated that Credit Suisse Group AG, the second- biggest Swiss bank, plans to cut about 2,000 jobs after second- quarter profit fell 52 percent on lower earnings from trading. In another news from Yahoo, HSBC will slash more than 10,000 jobs as part of the global banking giant's recently announced cost-cutting drive.


Euro Zone confidence level show sign of dropping

The Euro Zone services, industrial, economic and consumer confidences are showing a drop in level. These could possibly deem as a signal that the Euro market is crumbling down after its sovereign debt crisis. Expect sign to show an outflow of investment away from the zone. Will these cause the Euro Zone to show failure after 50 years of legacy?


For entertainment - Why China will still buy US Bond

Why do you think China will still buy US Bond even they knew that the US economy maybe coming down soon? I found this video from The Khan Academy.

Enjoy the lecture


Who you think may end up worst?


Do you believe

The current financial problem have spread from Wall Street to Main Street around the world. It seem there will not be any 'safe haven' after all.


Wednesday, 27 July 2011

Updates on Market

Current US stock market is still bleeding

  • Dow at -1.40%
  • S&P 500 at -1.82%
  • NASDAQ at -2.54%
Expect this to continue until decisive decision is made in Main Street.


For entertainment - Gold Bubble

Since our earlier article talks about bubble, lets take a look at this interesting clip on Gold Bubble.

I truly believe gold has its own true intrinsic value. But is the current price justifiable? For you to decide...


For entertainment - US Debt Crisis = How serious?

Wonder how much and how serious the US debt crisis is? Found this clip that explain why and how much is it. Enjoy

If no deal is made before the deadline, our world economy will suffer again. Who say housing crisis and banking default crisis during 2007/2008 is the depression? It may just be the begainning.


Sea of red

As expected, the battle over at main street is still on going, resulting wall street in a sea of red. Dow, Nasdaq and S&P is still down. USD is slightly up. This onslaught is killing everyone. Hopefully they will find a truce for this, to save wall street from bleeding further.

Bottom line, risk-off, low sentiment. Bad bad day ahead.


Greatest Insanity

Have we ever wonder why assets prices are chase upward, sometimes off its true asset value, derailed off the course to reach record high price, which set the traders and investors to a jolly good ride, usually end with the crashing of the price downwards when people starts to realise that the price is way to high? Some experts called it the Economic Bubble, or you may call it the price bubble, market bubble, etc. While i call it the Greatest Insanity of Human Behaviour that destroy hope.

What is an economic bubble? If you google it out, you may get tons of simple explanation on these terms. some economists till date still can't explain the reasons for bubble to occur because every insanity has its own complex underlying explanations. Some can blame Hedge Funds and institutional traders for driving the asset to deviate strongly from their intrinsic values, while there will always a minority that may blame on the luck and timing. Whether is it luck, or experts in the field pushing it upwards, we have to take into account that all these are boil down human behaviour. Google it out and we will find that this behaviour is know as herd behaviour in stock market today. As quoted in the wikipedia, "Many observers cite these episodes as clear examples of herding behavior that is irrational and driven by emotion—greed in the bubbles, fear in the crashes. Individual investors join the crowd of others in a rush to get in or out of the market".

We can depict a scenario of stock market making higher highs. When stocks make new highs, experts can it the bullish market scenario when sentiment is high, and wealth are created as a result. When it continues to make new high, sometimes higher than its Net Asset Value (NAV) and Book Value (BV), we can also relate it to the fact that retail investors are come in to chase the price because of the herd behaviour theory. From these, the ingredient added are simple; Greed. "Fortune favours the Bold"; if you can recall from history, Alexander the Great did said before to his generals and his troops. This make sense to the point that investors make trade together with the crowd, greedy for more returns. Whether is it some collaborations of fund houses, or certain groups of investors decide to take profit for their expensive holidays, naturally the stock market halted and cannot move higher, same situations for currencies. Eventually, what goes up must come down, everything is just free falling the next day. This is the same situation we seen during 2008 before Lehman Brothers bankruptcy. The US stock market went crushing down and sent a wave of sellers into a frantic selling mode.

The next question is how many economic bubbles do we have since the born of the economy, or should i narrow it down to after industrialisation? There are a number of economic bubbles or asset bubbles that happened way back centuries ago. Of course some academic study will show the most famous asset bubbles of all time is the Tulip Mania back in the 16th Century. We living in these modern times have only witness the Internet dot com boom, and the housing bubbles in 2007 that were so destructive; almost bring down the whole world economy. There are also some small asset bubbles which were easily forgotten as it was recovered and did not do much of the damage. There are a couple more asset bubble story that happened, which were long forgotten. Lucky that i found a kind soul that able to gives a perspective on what is a bubble in 'layman' form for us to learn. Chris Martenson produced a clip which i will share with you folks. Remember to watch finish the 2 parts of the series.

                                                     *A great thanks to Chris Martenson

From his explanation, we can learn that economic bubbles does occur a number of times in history. The human behaviour will never change as we have seen from history till now whatever that had happened. To make things worst, derivatives were 'invented' to manage the risk, but only to see it has been 'abused' in the end; using it to make money rather than its original purposes of managing risk and hedging. We will talk about derivatives more in our next article.

All in all, we live in a time where we need to re adapt to our economies again and again. Reflecting back in history, we can learned numerous ways to avoid or minimise the risk of bubbles growing. But how many are willing to do that. We maybe living in a time where history is going to be made again. After all, there is no bubble that was formed, it is the insanity in us.


Swiss KOF Leading Indicator for July

Swiss KOF Leading Indicator for july is lower than previous month and is the lowest since Feb 2010. As we mentioned in the earlier article on Swiss CHF as a safe haven yesterday noted that the expensive currency will eventually hurt it's own economy. The reading today really show signal that the overall economy is really hurt and damaged by their own expensive currency. We do expect the Swiss National Bank to intervene anytime soon before it gets out of hand.


Aussie at all time high!!!

Aussie Dollar had hit all time record high against USD after a very hot inflation expectation report today. Last read at $1.107.

Since AUD hit all time high, with recently Kiwi dollar hitting record high, there maybe a chance we have reach the peak for carry trade. Much of it should be seen supported by the previewing US Debt issue at main street that cause the two commodity currencies to press on.


Tuesday, 26 July 2011


Apple tops $400 per share price and has successfully become the one of the biggest company that reverse its fortune from the almost collaspe in the 90s before its successful makeover, to become the most innovative company in the world in terms of its products and marketing strategies.

Congrats to Apple and Steve Job.


History Recap - Hyperinflation in 1923

Looking on the news today, not much of progress after all. Let's take a look back in time and search for any similar situation we faced before. Hyperinflation is the word i will choose to look at.

Hyperinflation in layman term is defined as "inflation that goes out of control".

The main cause of hyperinflation is a massive and rapid increase in the amount of money  that is not supported by a corresponding growth in the output of goods and services. This is caused by the imbalance created between the supply and demand of money, which resulted in the money losing its true value, and over time causing a lost of confidence and hope; similar with bank run scenario.

The biggest example of hyperinflation we can trace back to Germany during 1923 when their currency hyper inflated to a ridiculous value. Below is a clip that summaries the crisis.

Hopefully that people in our generation can learned from history and not repeat the mistake again.


Kiwi Dollar = Safe Haven?

Kiwi Dollar = Safe Haven?
This was a remark made by NZ Finance Minister Bill English. He mentioned that the strength of Kiwi dollar is due to 'safe haven' perception. 

Perhaps their country is rich with commodities to be deem as safe, but how safe is it? Time will tell.


Swiss CHF - The best safe haven in current uncertainty

Swiss Francs have been part of the safe haven gang since its low interest rate and low borrowing cost. The currency had been the top safe haven choice since the start of the Euro crisis that sparks off from Greece and now reaching to a number of European countries' doorsteps.

Switzerland is a prosperous nation with a gross domestic product (GDP) higher than that of most western European nations.

As illustrated, Swiss GDP grow 0.3% in the first quarter 2011. It has been in positive growth for the past 7 quarters. The monetary policies have been relatively effective to a certain extent which allow the country GDP to rise again. The value and strength of the Swiss Franc (CHF) has been relatively stable compared with that of other currencies, especially against Euro. This can be understood by the fact that money flowing out from Euro has to land up in somewhere that is safe and secure for the time been, and also easy to access in quick succession. Swiss Francs is a great choice as it's residing in almost centre of Europe. In addition, we cannot disregard the fact that Swiss bankers are long time bankers and are better deposit bank than others; many people now still prefer to deposit cash into Swiss banks because of its banking secrecy and strict regulations. Also, we must not forget that it is the home for companies in different industrial sectors like food processing like NestlĂ©, chemical for industrial and construction use like Sika AG, pharmaceutical like Novartis, roof coating Sarnafil, among many others.

However, the strength of it seems to make it the most overvalued currencies currently. Take EUR/CHF for example, it has maintained its downward trend channel since April 2011 and is still showing strength everyday.

These strength in Swiss CHF are mainly because of;

  1. Risk-off trade which allow a surge for safe haven, which CHF is the hottest choice now
  2. The monetary policies that were implemented
  3. Low interest rate and borrowing cost
  4. Carry trade is no longer effective now
  5. Euro is in a terrible state
  6. Low confident in Euro as view by Hedge Fund and analysts
  7. US Debt Crisis is also another big blow to the world economy
  8. Risky assets have mostly returned to their before Lehman collapses price.
  9. Retail traders are always the last to fled from their trade, and if they are doing it, means that will be the final onslaught.

From the above chart on EUR/CHF, MACD is showing signal that its retracting upward, RSI is retracting upward too after last week's all time record low, and also downward channel have been broken twice, one after the Greece austerity bill passed in their Parliament, and another one after the second Euro bailout package for Greece. These maybe seem as a relief rally for Euro against Swiss. Sentiment is very low at the moment, which we may see continue downward pressure of Euro.

But again, Switzerland economy is affected by their expensive currency. Imagine your own citizen and industries will feel the pain when it comes to profit; it will be affected when FX exchange comes into play. I believe the central bank of Switzerland will intervene before things get out of hand.

After all, i do believe what goes up, must come down to equivalency. Since its at record high, possible central bank intervention,  chances of Euro to save themselves out of the mess and kick the problem to a later date, plus there will always be contrarian traders that will hedge against rising CHF even its a better safe haven, i prefer to view that CHF will reverse against most currencies in medium term.

Bottom line, facts and happening still show people prefer swiss bank for their deposit. Perhaps we are going back to basic soon? I don't know.


Bloomberg - U.S. Rating Downgrade is Now ‘Base Case’: ISI

In this article from Bloomberg, it seem certain that agencies like S&P will most likely downgrade US triple A rating by one notch down to double A, even if there is an outcome from the debt talk before 2nd August.

Here is the article from Bloomberg

From this, we have to admit that the whole episodes at the main street is really killing wall street. Dows and S&P 500 is down 0.58% and 0.29% respectively, USD is getting kickdown against other currencies; safehaven like Swiss CHF and Japanese YEN is higher than USD; clearly its a risk-off trading period until market gets certainty from main street.

Will Main street able to save Wall Street?


Will US outcome be the similar to the second EURO bailout of Greece?

Will the idea of EURO 2nd Bailout be kick in as an idea for US debt crisis solution since the bailout was announced last week?

Let's watch this clip on the evaluation on the 2nd bailout package

It will be interesting to see whether US will adapt some of the idea for their solution.


Interest free rate?

As US is facing a debt crisis, time is ticking nearer to the deadline on its debt ceiling and deficit cut in their budget decision. If the outcome is that US has to default almost 40% of its debt, this will rewrite the history of using US Treasury Bill's rate as our interest free rate. For most academic study throughout history, we have been using that as a gauge for interest free rate for our calculation just because of US's AAA grade rating. If default is the only outcome, we will be in the center of the change for our economic history. Even if there is no default, US may still lose its AAA rating, thanks to the 3 rating agencies which have proven not effective in times like this.

Just as expected, CME Group announced on Monday that as part of their "normal review of market volatility," it has determined that T-Bills should no longer be treated as risk-free when used as collateral.

Read more:

Just a 2 cent of thoughts, perhaps really all our textbook may change afterall. Maybe not... its how we view it after all.


For entertainment : Understanding the US Debt Crisis

Here is a video depicting the US Debt.... Let's enjoy....

Moral of the story, "sinking deeper into more debt is not just a debt crisis, its a humanity crisis"


For entertainment : Euro Crisis by BBC World

I was looking around reading news about the euro crisis and its effect and came about these videos. Since the hot topics these days are only Euro, lets watch this short clip on the euro crisis....

I must say a big thanks to BBC World in making the clip in 'layman' terms for us to understand why euro may bound to fail at the end.


Hi to all viewers and future readers. This space is created by a team of financial fanatic which understand the happenings of the world economic through the "layman" terms of way. We follow, understand, research and possible evaluate the situations of the event risk and determine a logical outcome from it.

However, all the posting and articles written and will be posted in future are solely on personal views which do not wish to impact any judgement and directions. We value the views of others and will post in articles which are interesting.

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